2011, Volume 7, Issue 3

Muscle strength in young judo contestants vs. untrained subjects



Stanisław Sterkowicz1, Grzegorz Lech1, Wiesław Chwała2, Tadeusz Ambroży3, Janusz Jaworski4, Artur Kłys1

1Department of Theory and Methodology of Combat Sports, University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Cracow, Poland
2Department of Biomechanics, University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Cracow, Poland
3Chair of Theory and Methodology of Gymnastics, University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Cracow, Poland
4Department of Kinesiology, University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Cracow, Poland


Author for correspondence: Stanisław Sterkowicz; Department of Theory and Methodology of Combat Sports, University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Cracow, Poland; email: wtsterko[at]cyf-kr.edu.pl


Full text

Abstract

Background and Study Aim: (1) to evaluate the level of relative strength in judoists compared to untrained peers; (2) identification of dominant muscle groups in strength preparation profile of judo contestants.
Material and Methods: The study was carried out in 11 judoists (J) who took at least fifth place in national judo tournaments. Average age of the subjects was 17 years, average body mass 79.8 kg. Their fight was registered during national-level championships: all successful actions in standing and on the ground were recorded. A comparative group (N) consisted of fifteen boys at similar age and body mass, recruited from randomly assigned schools.In the Department of Biomechanics, measurements of muscle torques were taken in study participants for extensor and flexor muscles in hips, knees, elbows arms and trunk, in both left and right body sides. The analysis concerned relative torques. Mean values for left and right sides were calculated for upper and lower extremities.
Results: Statistical analysis revealed that statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between mean values of relative muscle torques concerned flexors and extensors of elbow joint (J>N), arm joint (J>N), knee joint extensors (J>N) andtrunk flexors and extensors (J<N). The group of judoists was characterized by higher percentage of relative
torques knee extensors, with lower percentage of flexors and trunk extensors compared to untrained controls.
Conclusions: Although judo contestants exhibit similar relative strength to untrained peers, many-year training causes that they demonstrate higher strength in the muscles which are active when pulling or lifting the opponent during performing throws. Antigravity muscles are able to develop particularly high force in these people: they play an essential role when throws are performed.


Key words: judo, kumite, performance, strength, training effects, untrained peers