2019, Volume 15
The influence of weight reduction programs consisting of caloric restriction and/or exercise on the vital age of men with obesity.
Bokun Kim1, Seung-Ryol Kim2
1Remedial Massage, Meadowbank College of TAFE NSW, Sydney, Australia
2College of Arts and Sports, Dong-A University, Pusan, South Korea
Author for correspondence: Seung-Ryol Kim; College of Arts and Sports, Dong-A University, Pusan, South Korea; email: email@example.com
Background and Study Aim: Obesity is deeply related to a broad range of internal conditions, including heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes, as well as several musculoskeletal conditions, such as pain, stiffness, loss of joint mobility, osteoarthritis, tendinitis, and back pain. The purpose of this study was the influences of weight reduction programs consisting of caloric restriction and/or exercise on the vital age of men with obesity.
Material and Methods: For 12 weeks, 32 subjects attended an exercise class 3 days/week (exercise group; GE), and 79 subjects concurrently attended an exercise class 3 days/week and a caloric restriction class 1 day/week (caloric restriction + exercise group; GCE). Changes in weight and the following nine variables were assessed and used to compute the vital age: subscapular skinfold thickness, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, oxygen uptake and heart rate corresponding to lactate threshold (VO2LT and HRLT, respectively), side-to-side stepping, one leg balance with eyes closed and forced expiratory volume for one second (FEV1.0).
Results: The changes in weight for the subjects in the GE and GCE were −2.4% and −13.8%, respectively. The GE showed amelioration of the subscapular skinfold thickness (−23.2%), total cholesterol (−2.3%) and side-to-side stepping (+8.6%), whereas every component of vital age except for HRLT was ameliorated in the GCE. Stronger influences on four components of vital age, including systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride and FEV1.0 were detected in the GCE. As a result, improvement of vital age by 8.4% and 18.9%was detected in the GC and GCE, respectively. When an intergroup comparison was made, the improvement in the GCE was greater than that in the GC.
Conclusions: A combination of exercise and caloric restriction has stronger influences on four components of vital age, specifically systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride and FEV1.0, compared to exercise alone. Based on the results of this study, it is suggested that vital age was predominantly affected by caloric restriction and that combining exercise with caloric restriction yielded additional improvement in vital age.
Key words: biological vitality, risk factors, vital age