2014, Volume 10, Issue 1

The association of sport and violence, aggression and aggressiveness – prospects for education about non-aggression and reduction of aggressiveness



Jarosław Klimczak1, Robert Podstawski2, Dawid Dobosz3

1Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Department of Tourism and Recreation, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
2The Study of Physical Education and Sport, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
3Student scientific circle “Health Promotion – Interdisciplinary Approach” at the Faculty of Physiotherapy, Department of Health Promotion & Research Methodology, Academy of Physical Education, Katowice, Poland


Author for correspondence: Jarosław Klimczak; Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Department of Tourism and Recreation, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland; email: klimczakwmrot[at]op.pl


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Abstract

Contrary to declared concept of Olympism, sport is often a carrier of unjustified violence and even extremely severe aggression. In a global scale, the media, especially the electronic one, is the main entity promoting aggressive behaviour. The aim of this survey article is to present three sets of issues, being basic premises for rational orientation of research and development so that regardless of promoting the concept of Olympism, sport could serve as a basic mean of permanent education about non-aggression and reduction of aggressiveness for current and future generations, especially children and the adolescents: (1) lack of system countermeasures against the phenomenon of non-adequate use of the terms “violence”, “aggression”, “aggressiveness” directly in the field of sport and social activities remaining in close relationship with sport; (2) real threat of increasing aggressiveness, especially of children and adolescents, by uncontrolled education about violence and aggression with the use of subjects mentioned in the first item; (3) the possibility to use sport to reduce interpersonal aggression and aggressiveness through competent use of methods and means specific to widely understood sports activity.The collection of papers analyzed in this article has been mainly acquired from the electronic literature databases (Ebsco Scopus, Medline, PubMed). They were issued until 2013 and in various contexts raise the question of aggression in relationship to widely understood sport. For this purpose, the following key words has been used: “aggression”, “sport”, “reduction, aggressiveness”. Among applied and recommended ways to reduce aggressiveness the most effective ones include cognitive-behavioural methods, which comprise certain exercises and specific martial arts (judo, taekwondo) as a key component.


Key words: cognitive-behavioural methods, electroconvulsive therapy, judo, pharmacotherapies, taekwondo