2014, Volume 10
Body build, body composition and special fitness of female top ju-jitsu contestants
Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycień1, Tadeusz Ambroży1, Marian Jasiński2, Andrzej Kędra2
1Institute of Sport, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Cracow, Poland, Cracow
2Polish Ju-jitsu Association, Katowice, Poland, Katowice
Author for correspondence: Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycień; Institute of Sport, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Cracow, Poland; email: hapki77[at]poczta.onet.pl
Background and Study Aim: Contemporarily, a phenomenon of the increasing number of women who participate in combat sports has been observed. The aim of this study was to obtain knowledge about body build and body composition and profile of special fitness in women who practice ju-jitsu. This knowledge can be used in monitoring of the status of physical preparation and effects of training in female athletes who represent a variety of weight and age categories.
Material and Methods: The participants of the study were 12 female members of the national ju-jitsu team, aged 19.5 + 3.23, representing two weight categories: the lighter category up to 55 kg (n=6, 51.72 + 4.76 kg) and the heavier category (n=6, 65.67 + 3.88 kg). Body height was measured using an anthropometer. Body mass was measured using a weight scale. The evaluation of body composition was performed under standard conditions according to the bioelectric impedance analysis guidelines. Estimated were the body mass index (BMI) and body composition (FFMI and FMI) parameters. Fitness was assessed by means of a battery of tests used in karate (SPFT) and a judo special fitness test (SJFT). Maximal static strength in the dominant hand (HGS) was measured using a handgrip dynamometer. A Polar 810i heart rate monitor was used. Basic descriptive statistics were calculated. The significance threshold for differences between mean values was p<0.05.
Results: A very strong correlation between FMI and FFMI (r=0.98, p<0.001) was observed. The averages for the lighter group were significantly lower than for the heavier group as per BMI, FFMI, FMI (p<0.001) and fat percentage in total mass (p=0.005). During fitness evaluation, no statistically significant differences were found between the heavier and lighter weight categories in terms of SPFT, HGS and SJFT (p>0.05). The differences between mean values of anthropometric measurements and parameters were not significant for age categories (p>0.05). Significant differences were found between the mean values for age categories in the quality of push-ups, segment C of the SJFT, and in total throws. The SJFT index in the older group was better (i.e., lower) than in the younger group.
Conclusions: The body composition of female ju-jitsu athletes is associated with their weight category, but does not affect performance in special fitness tests. The results of tests on rapid kicks, push-ups and special endurance in the SJFT (total throws and index) are dependent on the age factor. Profile analysis enables group and individual diagnosis of fitness preparation. Such diagnosis can be used for the comparison of contestants at the time of measurement, as well as in the process of monitoring changes occurring in a training cycle. The established structure of special fitness among female top ju-jitsu contestants can be used for comparisons with male representatives.
Key words: age factor, fat-free mass index, female, high competitive level, ju-jitsu, sport-specific fitness, technique