2011, Volume 7, Issue 4
The method to evaluate the susceptibility to injuries during the fall – validation procedure of the specific motor test
Krzysztof Klukowski1, Roman M Kalina2, Bartłomiej J Barczyński3, Józef Langfort4, Bartłomiej Gąsienica-Walczak5
1College of Physiotherapy,Wroclaw, Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Wroclaw, Poland
2Department of Physiotherapy, Academy of Physical Education, Katowice, Katowice, Poland
3Index Copernicus International S.A., Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
4Department of Sport Training, Academy of Physical Education, Katowice, Katowice, Poland
5Institute of Physiotherapy, The Podhale State Vocational School of Higher Education, Nowy Targ, Nowy Targ, Poland
Author for correspondence: Bartłomiej J Barczyński; Index Copernicus International S.A., Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; email: barczynski[at]wp.pl
Background and Study Aim: In world literature an epidemiology of body injuries caused by the falls of people of different age and health condition is very well documented. However, there are not enough methods, which would make it possible to answer the question: which body parts of a given person are the most exposed to injuries during the fall and collision with a ground or other object. The aim of this paper is accuracy of “the susceptibility test of the body injuries during the fall” (STBIDF).
Material and Methods: The structure of STBIDF is: three motoric tasks performed on a tatami mats. A manner of the body parts protection (head, hands, hips, legs) was being assessed, the most exposed to damage during the fall. Any incorrect collision – simulated by the fastest possible change of the posture from vertical to horizontal (lying on the back), were documented by the errors of the first- (“1”) or the second grade (“2”), and no errors “0”. Total number of points is a general indicator of the susceptibility to body injuries during the fall (SBIDF): low (0), average (1-3), high (4-8), very high (9-14). Relatively for particular body parts (SBPIDF): low (0), average (1), high (2-6).The young, healthy, physically active women (n = 68), who were insignificantly diversified in terms of the age (20-25 years, average 21.26), however considerably in terms of the somatic development – the mean range of the body height 27 cm and body weight 34 kg, were examined.
Results: Most young women (57.35%) revealed a very high susceptibility to body injury caused by fall and collision with the ground or other obstacle and less than 6% showed the average susceptibility. The difference between the two proportions is statistically significant (p <0.005). Assuming a vertical posture as a reference system (also the initial posture of all tasks STBIDF), the more young women are susceptible to damage of a certain part of the body during the fall, the more distant from the ground. There is no statistically significant difference only between the proportion of young women's susceptibility to injury of hands and head during the fall. Both risks apply to more than 90% women. A very high convergence was found between results of individual tasks (made individually) and repeated simulation of falls of the same (Task 1) or very similar (Task 2 and 3) motor structure.
Conclusions: The test is simple and very safe tool and can be used for examining people of all ages who are able to independently change the posture from vertical to horizontal. The lack of ability to independently rise from the horizontal posture does not exclude the possibility of applying the test. Quite the opposite, the researcher (doctor, physiotherapist etc.) obtains additional information that such person, after the fall may be deprived of aid, therefore is susceptible
Key words: ageing, avoiding collisions, epidemiology of injuries, exaggerated orthostatic response, safe fall, the susceptibility test to the body injuries during the fall