2007, Volume 3
Spheres of fight in martial arts
Lothar Sieber1, Wojciech J. Cynarski2, Artur Litwiniuk3
1Idokan Poland Association, Munich, Germany, Munich
2Faculty of Physical Education, University of Rzeszow, Poland, Rzeszow
3Academy of Physical Education in Warsaw, Biala Podlaska branch, Poland, Biała Podlaska
Author for correspondence: Wojciech J. Cynarski; Faculty of Physical Education, University of Rzeszow, Poland; email: sp_walki[at]univ.rzeszow.pl
Background and Study Aim: On the ground of holistic anthropology of martial arts the authors analyze the spheres offi ght – from the physical dimension of a duel to transcendent and moral dimensions placedin the fi ghter’s conscience. The aim of the work is an attempt to explain the phenomenonof martial arts.
Material and Methods: The qualitative methods of empirical social studies have been used – the expert’s judgement(meijin Sieber 10 dan and opinions given by other specialists in martial arts and combatsports), long-term participating observation of the authors and heuristics from the humanistperspective of the theory of martial arts.
Results: One may distinguish the following categories of fi ght – its spheres: physical (perception,pain stimuli, movement and techniques of fi ght), emotional, referring to the will, intellectual,ethical, symbolic and not connected directly with psychophysical practice – the spiritualsphere (of individual moral choices on the way of life). Moreover, the following dimensionsof practicing fi ght have been distinguished: health (exemplifi ed by qigong); ritual (e.g. sumō);utilitarian (for the purpose of self-defense or real fi ght); sport (for rivalry of recreation);self-realizational (for personal transgression and inner spiritual development); symbolic(for cultural values, respect for tradition etc.).
Conclusions: Fight is practiced in physical time and space in technical conventional arrangements orlimited by rules in various formulas of “free fi ght”. In the sphere of the practitioner’s mindit may concern his imagination (mental training) or moral choices made. The axiologicalconnection between the transcendent aspect of the way of martial arts with the ethical wayof Christian personalism has been noted.
Key words: anthropolog, fighting, martial arts, self-defence