2015, Volume 11, Issue 1

Differences in the morphological and physiological characteristics of senior and junior elite Czech judo athletes

Lucia Mala1, Tomas Maly1, Frantisek Zahalka1, Jan Heller1, Pavel Hrasky1, Pavel Vodicka1

1Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Czech Republic, Czech Republic

Author for correspondence: Lucia Mala; Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Czech Republic, Czech Republic; email: lucilali[at]yahoo.de

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Background and Study Aim: The judo is combat sport in which the division into weight categories and age groups are applicable. Thus, both of these criteria even at the same period of training are determining the diversity of athletes especially in terms of the build. The aim of the study was the differences between the morphological and physiological characteristics of individual junior and senior judo athletes.
Material and Methods: Nineteen judo athletes (10 from the junior and 9 from the senior categories, participated in the study. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance. The multi-sensorial platform was used for posturographic examination. Cardio-respiratory and functional indicators were set using the Cortex Metalyzer ®3B device, a laboratory test consisting of a submaximal and maximal component. Anaerobic variables were detected using the Wingate test-Monark 824E mechanical ergometer.
Results: The morphological variables between the groups showed significant differences in body height, body mass and fat free mass. Statistically insignificant changes were found in the indicators of aerobic load up to vita maximum. However, the effect size indicated a large difference between the groups (W170, V, HRmax, and %VO2max). The greatest significant differences, as well as effect sizes, were detected in the anaerobic indicators. Moreover, significant differences were detected in postural stability in favour of the seniors. Decreases in blood lactate after an anaerobic load showed a significant effect of time and an insignificant effect of age. 
Conclusions: In all of the monitored areas, we revealed better predispositions for performance in senior athletes. In further research, it will be necessary to eliminate the limits of the study (the small sample, objectification of recovery processes after anaerobic load, and greater specificity in relation to judo performance).

Key words: aerobic indicators, anaerobic indicators, blood lactate, body composition, body postural stability, combat