2015, Volume 11
Ranking of the scientific units Polish physical education higher schools based on citations from Web of Knowledge for the period of 2009-2012 indexed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education – focus on specialists science of martial arts
Bartłomiej J Barczyński1
1Faculty of Physical Education, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Poland, Gdańsk
Author for correspondence: Bartłomiej J Barczyński; Faculty of Physical Education, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Poland; email: barczynski[at]wp.pl
Background and Study Aim: Citation is a single parametric way of measuring popularity of an individual and productivity of institutions,undoubtedly the most popular in the scientific world. Imperfection of this indicator is reflected by it being manipulated by the authors, research groups, editors or publishers. In spite of this weakness, the citation still remains the key driver for measurement of personal scientific achievements, evaluation of scientific institutions,a tool driving state scientific policy. The aim of this article is the ranking of academics working in Polish physical education high schools based on the citations reported for the national evaluation for the years 2009-2012 (with focus on specialists in the science of martial arts).
Material and Methods: Data about 25 units (the same ones as in the previous articles) were used in the study. One unit whose academics did not have any citation in years 2009-2012 was excluded from the analysis. The citations were reported by 24 scientific units (faculties) of Polish physical education high schools and related units (providing education in i.a. physiotherapy, recreation and sport). Citations, on which the analysis was based, were provided independently by the scientific units which had applied for the scientific category to list the number of publications cited in years 2009-2012 in accordance with Web of Science, i.e. to provide the number of publications cited in years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 written by any scientific or research-didactic employee and covering all scientific achievements. The analysis was based on citations of these academics who had at least one citation in observed period, with focus on citations made by scientific representatives of the science of martial arts. They were selected on the basis of their qualifications of martial arts (black belt or coaching qualifications) or master class (boxing, fencing, self-defence, unifight, wrestling, etc.).
Results: In the period 2009-2012 analysed institutions reported 5,929 citations; 4,811 (81%) were confirmed by academies of physical education, whereas 1,118 (19%) by academics of seven other types of institutions (technical universities, universities, other types of high schools). One unit out of 17 faculties of physical education academies generated 1/6 (n=996) of all citations.
Among 1,604 academics from 24 scientific units, only 365 (23%) persons had citations in the Web of Science. In 4 institutions, less than 10% (n=15) academics had citations; in 8 units 10-20% (n=72); in 7 institutions 20-30% (n=157); in 4 units 30-40% (n=105); and in only 1 institution, almost 50% of academics had citations. The Spearman’s rank correlation shows the strong correlation among cumulative Impact Factor and citations.The representatives of the science of martial arts (n=24) had significant impact. This group constitutes 1,5% of the PE academics population, whose productivity delivered 6.8% (n=403) of all citations.
Conclusions: Modern instruments of national science policy has far beyond involved a single-parameter evaluation, which is still the method frequently used to analyse individuals or institutions. The framework of the national evaluation of the scientific potential involves the number of parameters (generally identified as: scientific and creative achievements, scientific potential, material effects of the scientific activity, other effects of scientific activity) where citations are complements evaluation of the scientific institutions bringing the science or research development to the highest level. Evaluation model, parameters and criteria, changes in the law (reforms), involvement of scientists (Committee for Evaluation of Scientific Units), information system collecting the data on higher education and science (POL-on), peer review of collected data, presentation of results, feedback and further improvements (new regulation of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education from 27 October 2015 on the criteria and procedure for assigning scientific categories to scientific units) prove the excellent science policy in Poland achieved through comprehensive assessment of scientific units to accelerate research and facilitate innovation. On this background, Polish academics dealing with the science of martial arts are recognized in global science as top specialists with the leadership of the units of Polish physical education high schools (Kraków, Gdańsk, Wrocław).
Key words: Academy of Physical Education, citation, evaluation, physical education, scientific achievement, scientific policy, sports science, sports science