2016, Volume 12
Cardiovascular risk in elite Spanish judo athletes
Cristina Casals1, Raquel Escobar-Molina2, Yaira Barranco-Ruiz3, Emerson Franchini4, Vicente Carratalá-Deval5, Jesús R Huertas1
1Department of Physiology, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, Biomedical Research Centre, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Spain, Granada
2Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Spain, Granada
3School of Physical Culture, Faculty of Health Sciences, National University of Chimborazo, Ecuador, Riobamba
4Sport Department, School of Physical Education, University of São Paulo, Brazil, São Paulo
5Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Valencia, Spain, Valencia
Author for correspondence: Cristina Casals; Department of Physiology, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, Biomedical Research Centre, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Spain; email: casalsvazquez[at]gmail.com
Background and Study Aim: Cardiovascular diseases are the first cause of death globally and, although athletes have a longer life expectancy, they are not exempt from these diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was the presence of cardiovascular-risk factors in elite judo athletes amongst weight categories.
Material and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study in 49 (20 males, 29 females) elite Spanish judo athletes. Cardiovascular risk was assessed through body mass index, body fat percentage, blood pressure, lipid profile, glycaemia, renal and hepatic functions. The athletes were grouped into 3 weight categories and compared using a one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test as post hoc.
Results: Fifty percent of male athletes presented high blood pressure, and stage I hypertension was diagnosed in 30% of cases, while only 17% of females had high blood pressure. Moreover, 45% and 34% of males and females, respectively, showed low HDL-cholesterol levels. Most of the athletes had low body fat percentages; however, 10% of males and 20% of females presented fat excess, and 59% of athletes showed higher body mass than the allowed for their weight category. Fat percentages were higher in heavier categories than in lighter ones (p<0.001), and HDL-cholesterol was also significantly impaired in heavier categories for males (p = 0.015), but not for females. Nevertheless, uric acid levels of female athletes was higher in heavier categories compared with lighter ones (p = 0.026).
Conclusions: The relatively high presence of cardiovascular risk factors suggest the need for monitoring the health status of judo athletes to prevent cardiovascular diseases.
Key words: hypertension, creatinine, cardiovascular diseases, body weight, blood pressure, blood glucose, lipids, liver function