2019, Volume 15
Biomechanical characteristics of amateur boxers
1Department of Anatomy and Biomechanics, Kazimierz Wielki University, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Author for correspondence: Krzysztof Buśko; Department of Anatomy and Biomechanics, Kazimierz Wielki University, Bydgoszcz, Poland; email: krzysztof.busko[at]ukw.edu.pl
Background and Study Aim: The success in a boxing match is determined by many mutually correlated factors, such as motor abilities, technique, tactics, mental aptitudes of a boxer and method of judging.The aim of the study was to verify whether: 1) maximum force developed for an individual straight and hook punch performed with the lead hand is lower than the punching force recorded for the rear hand; 2) isometric peak joint torques for the upper lead limb are lower than joint torques for the rear hand; 3) there is a relationship between the maximal punching force and maximal torques, power output and jumping abilities of boxers.
Material and Methods: Six boxers participated in this study. The following measurements were taken: height of jump and power output in counter movement jump (CMJ) and spike jump (SPJ), muscle strength of 10 muscle groups, force-velocity relationship (F-v), and force of punches for rear and lead hand (hook and straight punches).
Results: Mean maximal straight punching forces with rear and lead hand were 2478.8 ±558.4 N and 1472.8 ±472.6 N, respectively. Mean maximal straight and hook punching forces were 2599.7 ±576.3 N and 2192.2 ±888.5 N, respectively. The values of height of CMJ and SPJ jumps were 0.430 ±0.050 m and 0.511 ±0.068 m, respectively. Peak power developed during individual straight punches with the rear limb was significantly higher than the maximal force of the punch performed with the lead limb. Peak joint torques for the lead limbs did not differ statistically from the joint torques for the rear limbs. High correlation is observed between maximum punching force and strength, height of CMJ and SPJ jumps and power output developed during determination of the F-v relationship.
Conclusions: Lack of differences in the values of forces between the rear and lead limbs and finding correlations between the punching force and the muscle torques are likely to show that the punching force may depend on other factors, e.g. technique.
Key words: power, joint torque, F-v relationship, counter movement jump, punching force, spike jump