2016, Volume 12
Body composition and selected anthropometric traits of elite Polish female judokas in relation to the performance of right-dominant, left-dominant, or symmetrical judo techniques in vertical posture (tachi waza)
Małgorzata Socha1, Kazimierz Witkowski2, Wiesława Jonak1, Krzysztof Andrzej Sobiech1
1Department of Human Biology, University School of Physical Education in Wrocław, Poland, Wrocław
2Department of Martial Arts, University School of Physical Education in Wrocław, Poland, Wrocław
Author for correspondence: Małgorzata Socha; Department of Human Biology, University School of Physical Education in Wrocław, Poland; email: socham[at]awf.wroc.pl
Background and Study Aim: Judo is a sport with a complex structure of short and “intense movements”. A judo competitor must possess high levels of strength, agility, and technical and endurance skills. The study aim is the relationship the body composition, the degree of symmetrization of muscle mass of the limbs, skinfolds and hand grip strength with respect to the preferred side of attacks in vertical posture (tachi waza) during judo matches.
Material and Methods: Twenty-five female members of the Polish national judo team (20.2 ±3.1 years) and 34 non-training women (20.1 ±0.8 years) participated in the study. Depending on the preference of attack direction during combat the judokas in vertical posture were divided into right-dominant, left-dominant, and symmetrical. All subjects were right-handed. Anthropometric measurements and body composition (BIA method) components were compared.
Results: The female judokas featured a higher BMI, intracellular water, upper limb circumferences, and thinner triceps, abdominal and calf skinfolds than the control. The thicker suprailiac skinfold in judokas can be associated with the necessity to maintain body stability during judo bouts. In control an asymmetry (right-left) in the circumferences of the forearm (0.4 cm), thigh (0.3 cm) and thickness of the abdominal (0.6 mm), triceps (–0.4 mm) and suprailliac skinfolds (–0.9 mm) was noted. In the right-dominant an asymmetry in the forearm circumference (0.4 cm) and suprailliac skinfold was found (1.9 mm). The left-dominant featured only an asymmetry in the thickness suprailliac skinfold (3.2 mm). No morphological asymmetry was observed among the symmetrical judokas. Dynamic asymmetry of hand grip strength was observed in control and only right-dominant judokas (2.1 kg).
Conclusions: In the right-handed judokas preferred direction of attacks removes morphological and dynamic signs of asymmetry. The estimation of the degree of symmetrization of the body build and body motor functions can be used in the process of judo training management.
Key words: anthropometry, attack directions, body balance disturbation tolerance skills, combat sports, hand strength