2016, Volume 12
Combat issues in literary works of Nobel Laureates for Literature – an interdisciplinary perspective of martial arts bibliotherapy
Leon Andrzej Krzemieniecki1, Waldemar Moska2
1Department of Combat Sports, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Poland, Gdansk
2Faculty of Tourism and Recreation, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Poland, Gdansk
Author for correspondence: Waldemar Moska; Faculty of Tourism and Recreation, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Poland; email: waldemar.moska[at]awfis.gda.pl
The concept of martial arts bibliotherapy has a direct relationship with the dynamically developing prophylactic and therapeutic agonology. While recognized in the global world of science new subdiscipline: the new science of martial arts is located in agonology (science about struggle). The aim of this very general review are the most important, according to the authors of the work – issues of fighting raised in the work of Nobel Prize winners in literature, which may be an important inspiration for the emerging of martial arts bibliotherapy within the broadly understood prophylactic and therapeutic agonology.
Henryk Sienkiewicz (Nobel Prize 1905), by compiling different sources and literary syncretism, created the original historical novel of the adventures of great action-escape, kidnapping, chases, liberation and other types of threats that the heroes of his works could overcome. Rudyard Kipling (1907) in colourfully and adventure led narrative released numerous parallels between the animal behaviour and the people, that very often cause conflicts and misunderstandings terminated by bitter fighting. Władysław Stanisław Reymont (1924) situates the fight for the rights and dignity of life in the environment associated with the world of nature and its impact on human life and its social environment. William Faulkner (1949) refers to personal observation and experience from the period of the service and fights for military aviation, while Winston Churchill (1953) describes an armed conflict in a global dimension, that is, the fight at the macro level. Ernest Hemingway (1954) in the history of cultural and literary thoughts on the phenomenon of fighting of a man with the lively nature has left perhaps the most multifarious legacy. The main character of the famous novel by Boris Pasternak (1958) – Doctor Zhivago – struggling with adversity, pays a personal defeat and loses as a man ill-adapted to the new reality. John Steinbeck (1962), his loudest novel – The Grapes of Wrath – devoted to the fight against exploitation of farm workers in California and the nascent capitalism. Nobel Prize winners Mikhail Sholokhov (1965) and Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn (1970) show people who are not able to break no dramas of life (the war, the Nazi camps, Soviet gulags, loss of loved ones, the disease and the lack of prospects for life).
Regardless of the diversity of literary narrative at the highest level of all the works combine two common possibilities: 1) secondary interpretation of the descriptions of battles (including the inner fight of a man) using the concept and methodology agonology 2) generalization in interdisciplinary approach, which, on the one hand, enriches the cognitive layer multithreaded issues of fighting, on the other hand, facilitates the implementation of the specific objectives of the application – prophylactic or therapeutic – individually tailored.
Key words: agonology, bravery, moral power, negative cooperation, science of martial arts