2016, Volume 12, Issue 1
The level of bravery and aggressiveness of the sports activity organisers for the youth – simulation research
Jarosław Klimczak1, Bartłomiej Barczyński2, Robert Podstawski3, Roman Maciej Kalina2
1Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Department of Tourism and Recreation, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
2Department of Combat Sports, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Poland
3Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
Author for correspondence: Jarosław Klimczak; Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Department of Tourism and Recreation, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background and Study Aim: The main category of theoretical and empirical agonology is a struggle and all its variations. When aggression is directed at the man directly from a short distance, in order to survive should take self-defence. This way are doing the bravery man not necessarily adequately prepared. If the attack at the micro scale is not addressed directly in the individual, so the circumstances are a factor, which generally modify the behaviour of both those not fully conscious (which are beyond the reasonable control) and specific decisions and actions. The aim of this study is the projection of human behaviour in similar situations of interpersonal aggression at the micro scale when the modifying factor is the intervention of a police officer, for which the reason is not defined.
Material and Methods: In anonymous simulation tests 516 adults the animators of youth sports (110 females- F and 406 males- M) applied the KS-4M projective test. Picture 1 shows the behaviour of nine people in an extremely acute conflict situation (3 in a manner providing for bravery, 3 for aggressiveness). Picture 4 shows the behaviour of the seven people in a similar situation, where one of the characters is a policeman intervened with force (1 behaviour is attesting for bravery, 3 for aggressiveness). In both pictures one simulations prove about: total helplessness; being indifferent to physical harming others; fascinating to physical violence and aggression.
Results: Projection of actions (behaviours) in both cases among women as well as men slightly is correlating positively (r = 0.114; 0.154) is not statistically significant. Change in circumstances when the policeman intervenes, causing the migration of the declared actions (behaviours) towards aggressive one. In a situation on picture1 declarations prove: bravery 95% F, 90% M; aggressiveness 2% F, 3% M and in situation on picture 4, respectively: bravery 69% F, 68% M; aggressiveness 20% F, 21% M.
Conclusion: Aggressiveness is not stable feature and does not distinguish females and males of a similar age, with similar professional qualifications and professional-social activity. For revealing aggressiveness or suppression (more or less conscious controlling) significant influence have circumstances of the situation of acute interpersonal conflict.
Key words: aggression, agonology, defence struggle, martial arts bibliotherapy, projective test