2017, Volume 13
Motivation in judo: rethinking the changes in the European society
Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycień1, Jan Blecharz2, Stanisław Sterkowicz3
1Department of Gymnastics and Dance, Institute of Sport Sciences, University of Physical Education, Cracow, Poland
2Department of Psychology, Institute of Social Sciences, University of Physical Education, Cracow, Poland
3Combat Sports Unit, Department of Theory of Sport and Kinesiology, Institute of Sport Sciences, University of Physical Education, Cracow, Poland
Author for correspondence: Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycień; Department of Gymnastics and Dance, Institute of Sport Sciences, University of Physical Education, Cracow, Poland; email: katarzyna.sterkowicz[at]awf.krakow.pl
Background and Study Aim: Many socio-economic changes have taken place in Poland in the last 25 years. The aim of the study is the results of long-term observations of changes occurring in motivation of Polish top female and male judo athletes.
Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study included a total of 102 judokas (49 females and 53 males) from the Poland national teams. They were surveyed during their competitive periods in three different time points: T1 in 1988/1989 (25 females, mean age 21.3 ±1.8 years, and 25 males, mean age 23.4 ±2.1 years); T2 in 2002 (11 females, mean age 22.6 ±1.7 years, and 9 males, mean age 23.8 ±1.9 years); and T3 in 2014 (13 females, mean age 23.7 ±2.8 years, and 19 males mean age 23.7 ±2.4 years). A Polish version of a nine-factor Motivation Questionnaire proposed by Terry & Fowles (1985) was used in 3 time points. The gender effect was compared using one way ANOVA for each of 9 motives. Multiple sample comparison was employed for all six sub-groups of judo athletes. Effect size ƞ2-values were calculated.
Results: In general, women scored lower than men in stress (ƞ2 = 0.11) and aggression (ƞ2 = 0.06) motives. With regard to the gender factor, a large effect was observed for mean scores in excellence (ƞ2 = 0.20), stress (ƞ2 = 0.26), Power (ƞ2 = 0.29), extrinsic success (ƞ2 = 0.19) and aggression (ƞ2 = 0.35). In females, mean scores were significantly different between time points of measurements for: excellence, stress, power, extrinsic success, and aggression (T1<T3) whereas in males for: excellence (T2<T3), independence (T<T3), power (T1<T3, T2<T3), extrinsic success (T1<T3), and aggression (T1<T3, T2<T3).
Conclusions: Social changes might have an effect on the structure of motivation in judokas. In training, individual differences should be taken into consideration to meet particular needs of the athletes, thereby ensuring their good functioning in and outside sports environment.
Key words: psychological preparation, values, motivation principle, satisfaction, social change, wellness