2018, Volume 14
Quasi-apparatus shime waza test (QASWT) – validation procedure
Michał Oleksy1, Roman Maciej Kalina2, Dariusz Mosler3, Władysław Jagiełło2
1Uczniowski Klub Sportowy Judo, Krakow, Poland
2Department of Combat Sport, Faculty of Physical Education, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sports, Gdansk, Poland
3Jan Dlugosz University of Czestochowa, Institute Physical Education, Tourism and Physiotherapy, Czestochowa, Poland
Author for correspondence: Dariusz Mosler; Jan Dlugosz University of Czestochowa, Institute Physical Education, Tourism and Physiotherapy, Czestochowa, Poland; email: dariusz.mosler[at]gmail.com
Background and Study Aim: Judo is the only Olympic sport where it is acceptable to the win by suffocation of competitor. Alternatively, by capitulate of a competitor due to the applied chokehold technique (shime waza). Despite the popularity of judo therapy in Japan, the clinical effects of shime waza are unknown. The studies aim to validate the quasi-apparatus shime waza test (QASWT) from two perspectives: the safety of practising judo and clinical applications.
Material and methods: Twenty juvenile judo athletes (14 boys, 6 girls) in age between 10 to 12 years (10.7 ± 0.73) were tested. Authorial QASWT was applied. The accuracy of this test was based on Delphi method (assessed by 5 competent judges). The reliability test was determined by a test-retest method with an interval of 7 days. Trial 1 (progressive choking): experienced judo instructor counts loudly (in Polish) “hundred twenty-one” (lowest range of applied choking strength) to “hundred twenty-five” (the highest range), applying alongside with it kata-juji-jime (single cross hold) with increasing strength. Surrendering (tapping out) by the participant (or symptoms of fainting) ends the trial. Assistant starts stop-watch at the beginning of counting and stops it at the moment of surrendering (strength needed to surrender were necessary to verification in progressive version FSWprogres). The difference in Trial 2 is in applying determined for each participant strength from the beginning (FSWcorrect). Indicators: FSWprogres and FSWcorrect in a scale from 1 to 5; time of choking tolerance tTSWprogres and tTSWcorrect (in seconds with precision to 0.01); Shime Waza Index (SWIprogres and SWIcorrect respectively) from 0 to 1 (it is determining ability of choking tolerance in proportion of tTSWprogres and tTSWcorrect to constant value of 5.99 seconds).
Results: Full agreement between competent judges confirms high accuracy QASWT. Moreover, regularity of SWI reduction between trial 1 and 2 (SWIprogres and SWIcorrect respectinely: test 0.83 ±0.20 ÷ 0.69 ±0.25; re-test 0.86 ±0.17 ÷ 0.69 ±0.26) was confirmed. Very high reliability was confirmed by test-retest results of following QASWT indicators: FSWprogres (r = 0.973); tTSWprogres (r = 0.917); SWIprogres (r = 0.894), all p<0.01. Lower correlation of SWIcorrect (r = 0.603; p<0.01) and tTSWcorrect (r = 0.505; p<0.05) indicators do not give solid bases to question reliability for that category of diagnostic tools.
Conclusions: Applied methodology of QASWT fulfils medical and ethical standards of safety for people who are using shime waza during judo and self-defence training. This innovative tool of prophylaxis and therapy based on elements of martial arts (e.g. fear reduction, stress-resistant training, increasing surviving abilities), when applied reasonably, may have positive effects in treatment and therapy of some disorders. This application requires the interdisciplinary cooperation of specialists in a field of medicine, physiotherapy, agonology (with judo qualifications), psychology and medical biotechnology.
Key words: Delphi method, innovative agonology, judo therapy, katsu, survival ability