2018, Volume 14
Somatotype of Korean combat sport athletes based on weight divisions
Noh Woong1, Yang Min1, Kim Hyun2, Lee Uk3, Kim Young4, Lee Kyu1, Park Sun1, Lee Deok5, Shin Sub1, Kim Ho1, Kim Jung1, Kim Ilhyun1, Kwak Yong6, Lee Taehyun7, Kim Juyoung7, Kim Junghwan1
1Physical Therapy, Yongin University, South Korea, Yongin
2Physical Therapy, Wonkwang Health Science University, South Korea, Iksan
3Physical Therapy, Honam University, South Korea, Gwangju
4Physical Therapy, Yongin University, South Korea, Yongin
5Physical Therapy, Yongin University, South Korea, Yongin University
6Taekwondo Instructor Education, Yongin University, South Korea, Yongin
7Combative Martial Arts Training, Yongin University, South Korea, Yongin
Author for correspondence: Kim Junghwan; Physical Therapy, Yongin University, South Korea; email: junghwankim3[at]yongin.ac.kr
Background and Study Aim: It is well established that somatotypes are defined by the physical characteristics of the body. However, the somatotype results of Korean combat sport athletes have not yet been established. The purpose of study was the somatotype of Korean combat sport athletes based on body weight divisions and physical characteristics in relations the practice of training and sport rehabilitation.
Material and Methods: This study consisted of 40 judo, 32 ssireum, 31 taekwondo (gyorugi), 20 taekwondo (poomsae), 23 boxing, and 13 wrestling elite athletes. The participants were divided into four weight divisions: light weight (‒55 to ‒74 kg), middle weight (‒75 to ‒94 kg), heavy weight (‒95 to ‒114 kg), and super heavy weight (+115 kg). Somatotypes measurements were performed using a Heath and Carter’s modified somatotype method.
Results: Ssireum athletes had higher endomorphic and mesomorphic characteristic values and lower ectomorphic characteristics compared to other athletes. Somatotype component values for judo and wrestling athletes were similar. Gyorugi athletes had higher ectomorphic values than other athletes and were taller. Values of all components among the poomsae athletes were balanced. Boxing athletes had the same endomorphic and ectomorphic values and higher mesomorphic characteristic values. Differences between the sports were more significant in the lower- and middle-weight categories compared to the heavy- and super-heavy-weight categories. For all combat sports, higher weight divisions included higher endomorphic and mesomorphic values and lower ectomorphic values compared to lower weight categories. Correlations between endomorphic characteristics and body weight were significant among all athletes except for gyorugi athletes. Correlations between mesomorphic characteristics and body weight were significant among judo, ssireum, boxing, and wrestling athletes, but taekwondo athletes did not show any correlation. The correlation between ectomorphic characteristics and body weight were significantly negative among judo, ssireum, gyorugi, boxing, and wrestling athletes and negative among poomsae athletes.
Conclusions: Almost all combat sport athletes have mesomorph body types except for taekwondo athletes, and the somatotypes of athletes were influenced by the type of sport and weight divisions. Therefore, injured or ahead-of-the-game elite combat athletes require different methods of rehabilitation and training based on sport type and body weight, and further studies are required to assist in proper training for athletes returning from injury and to aid in sport rehabilitation.
Key words: Somatotype analysis, Korean combat sport athletes, Weight divisions