2019, Volume 15
Effects of aquarobic on health-related physical fitness, cardiovascular factor and frail-ty-index in pre-frailty elderly women with hypertension
Dong-Hyun Kim1, Hyun-Hun Jung1, Seul-Hee Lee1, Yun-Hwan Kim1, Il-Kyu Park1, Sang-Kab Park1, Min-Ki Jeong1, Woo-Nam Kim1
1College of Art and Sports, Dong-A University, Busan, South Korea
Author for correspondence: Woo-Nam Kim; College of Art and Sports, Dong-A University, Busan, South Korea; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background and Study Aim: The treatment of hypertension in the elderly is reported to decrease the occurrence and mortality of cardiovascular disease and as frailty is reported to be higher in elderly people and in women than in men systematic management of the elderly women is necessary. Therefore, this study aim is the effects of aquarobics on health-related fitness, cardiovascular factor and frailty index to pre-frailty elderly women with hypertension.
Material and Methods: Thirty-six subjects with pre-frailty elderly women with hypertension in this study and were randomly divided into one of two groups: aquarobics group (n = 18) and control group (n = 18). The aquarobics program was conducted in program for 60 minutes, three times a week for 12 weeks. Outcomes, including health-related physical fitness, cardiovascular factor and frailty index, were measured before and after the training.
Results: Weight (p = .000), lean body mass (p = .000), fat mass (p = .000), % body fat (p = .000), left grip strength (p = .001), time up and go (p = .001), 2-minute walking (p = .023) showed a valid difference in the interaction between the group and time. In addition, systolic blood pressure (p = .016), diastolic blood pressure (p = .034), total cholesterol (p = .002), triglyceride (p = .043), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (p = .007), insulin (p = .000), HOMA-IR (p = .000), tumor necrosis factor –a (p = .000), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p = .000), frailty scale (p = .021) showed a valid difference in the interaction between the group and time.
Conclusions: Aquarobics enhances the body composition and fitness of pre-frail elderly women with hypertension, alleviates cardiovascular factor and improves frailty index. Therefore, it is considered to be an effective method to prevent health-related fitness and frailty of pre-frail elderly women with hypertension.
Key words: strength, physical activity, flexibility, coordination, blood pressure