2019, Volume 15
Hormonal responses to taekwondo fighting simulation versus conventional resistance exercise in young elite taekwondo athletes
Eonho Kim1, Harshvardhan Singh2, Hyeri Oh3, Jung-Hoon Kim4, Younghoon Kim5, Seung-Taek Lim1, Bokun Kim6
1Department of Sport Science, Korea Institute of Sport Science (KISS), Seoul, South Korea
2Department of Physical Therapy, University of Alabama, Birmingham, United States
3Department of Sport Medicine, Cha University, Pocheon, South Korea
4Department of Exercise Prescription & Rehabilitation, Dankook University, Cheonan, South Korea
5Department of Judo Instructor Education, Youngin University, Youngin, South Korea
6Department of Sports Health Care, In-Je University, Gimhae, South Korea
Author for correspondence: Bokun Kim; Department of Sports Health Care, In-Je University, Gimhae, South Korea; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background and Study Aim: Taekwondo, including martial art competitions, involve explosive and quick movements of the lower extremities and thus, require a high contribution of the anaerobic energy system. Previous findings indicate preferential use of anaerobic or lactic acid system in taekwondo including martial art competitions. The aim of this study was the knowledge about hormonal such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), testosterone and cortisol responses between taekwondo fighting simulation (TFS) and traditional resistance exercise (RE) in elite taekwondo athletes.
Material and Methods: Eight Korea Armed Forces Athletic Corps taekwondo athletes participated in our randomized cross-over study, during three separate visits by a period of 7 days. Visit 1: measured of 1 repetition-maximum and given informed; visit 2 and visit 3: 1) 2 sets of 8-reptition maximum each of squat, hip-abduction and leg-extension exercises or 2) a TFS similar to a real taekwondo match consisting of 3 rounds of 2 minutes were undertaken by the participants. Blood samples were taken to determine insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), testosterone and cortisol concentrations during pre exercise, immediate post exercise, and 15 minutes post exercise.
Results: IGF-1 concentration was greater at immediate post-exercise than pre exercise (p = 0.02) and post-15m (p = 0.003) after TFS, but any significant change was not detected after RE. Cortisol concentration was lower at immediate post-exercise than pre- (p = 0.006) and at post-15m than pre- (p = 0.014) after RE, but any significant change was not detected after TFS. Testosterone concentration was greater at immediate post exercise than pre- (p = 0.003) and reduced at post-15 minutes than immediate post exercise (p = 0.002) in the both type of exercise.
Conclusion: Taekwondo competition affects hormonal response is similar to after resistance training in elite taekwondo athletes. Future studies are required to compare the hormonal responses by setting the same energy consumption of TFS and RE. It is also important to study the differences in hormone changes with respect to physical abilities of individuals.
Key words: muscular strength, hypertrophy, 1RM, power, training load