2020, Volume 16
Kinanthropometric attributes of elite South African male kata and kumite karateka
Alexandra Nichas1, Brandon Shaw2, Lourens Millard2, Gerrit Breukelman2, Ina Shaw2
1Human Movement Science, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
2Human Movement Science, University of Zululand, Richards Bay, South Africa
Author for correspondence: Lourens Millard; Human Movement Science, University of Zululand, Richards Bay, South Africa; email: MillardL@unizulu.ac.za
Background and Study Aim: Karate performance is based on many factors, such as strength, speed and endurance. Another important factor which can affect performance is kinanthropometric attributes. The cognitive aim of this study was to increase the knowledge about kinanthropometric attributes of South African male athletes participating in karate kata and kumite between the ages of 18-65 years.
Material and Methods: Kinanthropometric data was collected from 101 male karate athletes from the South African Japanese Karate Association (JKA) population. Purposeful random sampling was used to select participants. Participants’ stature, body mass, body fat percentage (BF%), fat mass, lean body mass (LBM), body mass index (BMI), skinfolds, elbow and knee breadths, bicep and calf circumferences, waist circumference, hip circumference, somatotype, cormic index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), body surface area (BSA), conicity index, adiposity body shape index (ABSI) and body adiposity index (BAI) were assessed. Quantitative statistical methods were used as well as an analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Results: No significant (p>0.05) differences were found for the kata group in relation to any of the measured kinathropometric variables and across all age groups. Conversely, significant differences in the kumite group existed for all measured kinathropometric variables across all age groups (p≤0.000). The results indicated that there was a significant difference for calf circumference when comparing the 26-45 year-old’s in the combined group to the 46-65-year-old group (p = 0.032). Lastly, a significant difference was found in WHR when comparing the 26-45-year-old’s in the combined group to the 46-65-year-old group (p = 0.042).
Conclusions: The kinanthropometric attributes of South African male national and international karate athletes between the ages of 18-65 participating in kata and kumite, are influenced by the high levels of training which they are exposed to, kinanthropometry does influence their karate performance, do have a healthy level of anthropometry and are positively affected by karate training as no kinanthropometric health risks are evident.
Key words: martial arts, body composition, anthropometry, sport performance