2012, Volume 8, Issue 4
A Judo that Incorporates Kendo: Jigoro Kano’s Ideas and Their Theoretical Development
1Waseda University, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Author for correspondence: Fumiaki Shishida; Waseda University, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; email: fuzanaoi[at]waseda.jp
Kano stated that in the future judo should combine with kendo to become one while he touched upon the necessity of studying kendo and the relationships between judo and kendo, and he also often mentioned that his vision of ideal judo was present in the randori practices during the early years of the Kodokan. These remarkable statements would not have been special for Kano but will be unexpected for present judokas who practice a competitive judo as a sport. Why they have a problem to understand it is that Kano thought judo over as practical martial art as well as physical education and a sport event. Kano’s ideal judo had not completed during his lifetime but that theme was succeeded by Professor Tomiki. Tomiki defined the kendo principle as the “technical theory of chop and thrust while avoiding touching”, and clearly advanced Kano’s idea. Tomiki improved the explanation of atemi-waza through his analysis of the Koshiki-no-kata. Tomiki analyzed each form of Koshiki-no-kata through the study of the relationship between “toughing” and atemi-waza. Kano encouraged judokas to practice “Seiryoku-zenyo-kokumin-taiiku”, which would be influenced by karate in Okinawa. Tomiki systematized Kano’s idea through emphasizing that judo practitioners should practice techniques of chop and thrust based on the principle of the throwing technique, because Tomiki thought that there was a structural difference between karate judo and karate.
Key words: atemi-waza, ju, koshiki-no-kata, shizen-tai, tegatana , tomiki