2021, Volume 17
The Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Slovak, and Spanish, adaptation of the Makarowski's Aggression Questionnaire for martial arts athletes
Ryszard Makarowski1, Andrzej Piotrowski2, Radu Predoiu3, Karol Görner4, Alexandra Predoiu5, Georgeta Mitrache3, Romualdas Malinauskas6, Néstor Vicente-Salar7, Zermena Vazne8, Konstantin Bochaver9, EVGENY CHEREPOV10, IMADUDDIN HAMZAH11, ZAHRA NIKKHAH-FARKHANI12, MÁRTA MIKLÓSI13, KLÁRA KOVÁCS14, FLORIN PELIN15, OLE BOE16, SAMIR RAWAT17, ABHIJIT DESHPANDE17, MIECZYSŁAW PLOPA18
1Faculty of Administration and Social Sciences, Elblag University of Humanities and Economics, Elblag , Poland
2Department of Personality Psychology and Forensic Psychology, University of Gdańsk, Institute of Psychology, Gdańsk, Poland
3Teachers\' Training Department, National University of Physical Education and Sports, Bucharest, Romania
4Faculty of Arts, Matej Bel University, Banska Bystrica, Slovak Republic
5Sports and Motor Performance Department, National University of Physical Education and Sports, Bucharest, Romania
6Department of Physical and Social Education, Lithuanian Sports University, Kaunas, Lithuania
7Department of Applied Biology-Nutrition, University Miguel Hernandez, Elche, Spain
8Department of Sport and Training Theory, Latvian Academy of Sport Education, Riga, Latvia
9Sport Psychology Lab, Moscow Institute of Psychoanalysis, Moscow, Russia
10Department of Physical Education and Health, South-Ural State University, Chelyabinsk, Russia
11Department of Community Guidance, Correctional Polytechnic, Jakarta, Indonesia
12Business Management Department, University of Bojnord, Bojnord, Iran
13Department of Pedagogical Psychology, University of Debrecen, Debrecen , Hungary
14Institute of Educational Studies, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
15Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Sports and Motor Performance Department, National University of Physical Education and Sports, Bucharest, Romania
16Department of Business, Strategy and Political Sciences, University of South-Eastern Norway, Kongsberg, Norway
17Symbiosis International University, Pune, India
18Faculty of Psychology, University of Economics and Human Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
Author for correspondence: Alexandra Predoiu; Sports and Motor Performance Department, National University of Physical Education and Sports, Bucharest, Romania; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background and Study Aim: Studying aggression and aggressiveness among martial arts athletes allows for identifying aspects of the training process, important for the professional and personal development. Makarowski's Aggression Questionnaire has only been published in English in 2013. The aim of the current study is recommendation to researchers, coaches of various martial arts (combat sports) disciplines, physical education teachers, and sports psychologists with a measure of aggressiveness.
Material and Methods: The Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Slovak, and Spanish adaptation of Makarowski’s Aggression Questionnaire was used. The questionnaire measures the following dimensions of aggressiveness: “Go-ahead” (the athlete attacks, breaks obstacles, is courageous and see obstacles as challenges to be overcomed), “Foul play” (the athlete has no scruples, is willing to blame others in order to achieve his/ her goal or to block them, often in an unethical manner – for example, by pushing an opponent on the field) and “Assertiveness” (the athlete expresses his/ her opinion and emotions directly, in a courageous way and within appropriate boundaries - for example, a critical feedback to peers or to the coach). The questionnaire’s reliability and validity analyses on martial arts athletes from Hungary (n = 50), Latvia (n = 31), Lithuania (n = 51), Poland (n = 49), Romania, (n = 53), Russia (n = 55), Slovakia (n = 30) and Spain (n = 24) were made. Reliability was assessed using the Cronbach’s α internal consistency coefficient, which ranged from 0.67 to 0.85 for the individual subscales. The test’s internal structure was verified via confirmatory factor analysis.
Results: The adapted versions of Makarowski’s Aggression Questionnaire have good psychometric properties and can be used in international studies. Also, single-factor analysis of variance highlighted that martial arts athletes from Spain achieved the highest mean on the Go-ahead subscale, martial arts athletes from Latvia achieved the highest mean on the Foul play subscale, while martial arts athletes from Poland obtained the highest values on the Assertiveness subscale. Considering the lowest Go-ahead scores, these were observed in martial arts athletes from Romania, the lowest Foul play scores - in martial arts athletes from Spain, and the lowest Assertiveness values – in martial arts athletes from Hungary.
Conclusions: In accordance with the general methodological standards, the questionnaire can be used in coaching practice, as part of psychological skills training and in international research. The appendix includes Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Indian (Martahai and Hindi), Indonesian, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Macedonian, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian (implicitely Moldavian), Russian, Slovak and Spanish versions of the Makarowski’s Aggression Questionnaire for martial arts athletes, together with the norms for both women and men.
Key words: “go-ahead”, foul play, combat sport, assertiveness, aggressiveness, aggression, martial arts