2021, Volume 17

The English-speaking, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Romanian, Russian, Slovak, and Spanish adaptations of Makarowski’s Stimulating and Instrumental Risk Questionnaire for martial arts athletes



RYSZARD MAKAROWSKI1, ANDRZEJ PIOTROWSKI2, RADU PREDOIU3, KAROL GÖRNER4, ALEXANDRA PREDOIU5, GEORGETA MITRACHE6, ROMUALDAS MALINAUSKAS7, NÉSTOR VICENTE-SALAR8, ZERMENA VAZNE9, EVGENY CHEREPOV10, MÁRTA MIKLÓSI11, KLÁRA KOVÁCS12, RALUCA PELIN13, OLE BOE14, SAMIR RAWAT15, ABHIJIT DESHPANDE15, MIECZYSŁAW PLOPA16, WOJCIECH PLOPA17

1Faculty of Administration and Social Sciences, Elblag University of Humanities and Economics, Elblag, Poland
2Department of Personality Psychology and Forensic Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland
3Teachers\' Training Department, National University of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Bucharest, Romania
4Faculty of Arts, Matej Bel University, Banska Bystrica, Slovak Republic
5Sports and Motor Performance Department, National University of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Bucharest, Romania
6Teachers\' Training Department, National University of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Bucharest, Romania
7Department of Physical and Social Education, Lithuanian Sports University, Kaunas, Lithuania
8Biochemistry and Cell Therapy Unit, Institute of Bioengineering; Department of Applied Biology-Nutrition, Alicante Institute for Health and Biomedical Research (ISABIAL-FISABIO Foundation), University Miguel Hernandez, Elche, Elche, Spain
9Department of Sport and Training Theory, Education Psychology and Education Internship, Latvian Academy of Sport Education, Riga, Latvia
10Department of Physical Education and Health, South-Ural State University, Chelyabinsk, Russia
11Department of Pedagogical Psychology, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
12Institute of Educational Studies, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
13Faculty of Medical Engineering, Department of Physical Education and Sports - Kinetotherapy, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
14Department of Business, Strategy and Political Sciences, University of South-Eastern Norway, Kongsberg; Bjorknes University College, Oslo, Kongsberg; Oslo, Norway
15Symbiosis International University, Pune, India
16Faculty of Psychology, of Economics and Human Sciences in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
17Faculty of Psychology, University of Economics and Human Sciences in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland


Author for correspondence: GEORGETA MITRACHE; Teachers\' Training Department, National University of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Bucharest, Romania; email: georgetamitrache@gmail.com

RYSZARD MAKAROWSKI: 0000-0001-6131-0908

ANDRZEJ PIOTROWSKI: 0000-0003-1192-2695

RADU PREDOIU: 0000-0001-8618-8435

KAROL GÖRNER: 0000-0002-9630-2745

ALEXANDRA PREDOIU: 0000-0001-8802-3837

GEORGETA MITRACHE: 0000-0002-9295-0083

ROMUALDAS MALINAUSKAS: 0000-0001-5578-3100

NÉSTOR VICENTE-SALAR: 0000-0003-2276-7205

ZERMENA VAZNE: 0000-0002-4361-5473

EVGENY CHEREPOV: 0000-0001-8469-9741

MÁRTA MIKLÓSI: 0000-0002-8162-563X

KLÁRA KOVÁCS: 0000-0001-7272-2756

RALUCA PELIN: 0000-0002-9634-3280


SAMIR RAWAT: 0000-0002-9626-075X

ABHIJIT DESHPANDE: 0000-0001-5926-202X

MIECZYSŁAW PLOPA: 0000-0002-5278-149X

WOJCIECH PLOPA: 0000-0001-7003-0553



Full text

Abstract

Background and Study Aim: The competition is an unique event which supposes pressure, social and financial stake, in these conditions increasing the athletes’ probability of getting injured. And this probability is higher in the case of new and inexperienced athletes, in which case (mainly), the win-at-all-costs philosophy may lead to less calculated risks. The goal of the current study is recommendation to researchers, coaches of various martial arts (combat sports) disciplines, physical education teachers, and psychologists with a measure of stimulating and instrumental risk. Adapting the S&IRQ will allow for assessing athletes in terms of sports risk

Material and Methods: The Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Romanian, Russian, Slovak, Spanish, and English adaptation of Makarowski’s Stimulating and Instrumental Risk Questionnaire (S&IRQ) was made. Two types of risk are discussed: (a) stimulating risk, which focuses on the experience of pleasurable physiological stimulation, and (b) instrumental risk, which is a goal-oriented strategy/tactics. Our study has also a cross-sectional nature, analyzing the results for instrumental and stimulating risk, in the case of eight groups of athletes. The questionnaire’s reliability and validity analyses on martial arts athletes from Hungary (n = 47), Latvia (n = 32), Lithuania (n = 47), English-speaking athletes from other countries (n = 58), Romania, (n = 61), Russia (n = 53), Slovakia (n = 29) and Spain (n = 25) was made. Reliability was measured using the Cronbach’s α internal consistency coefficient, which ranged from 0.69 to 0.83. A confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify the questionnaire’s internal structure.

Results: Results of research using the eight versions of the S&IRQ indicate that the measure possesses good psychometric properties and can be used in international research. Also, single-factor analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the groups of athletes. Romanian athletes achieved the highest mean scores for the stimulating risk scale, while athletes from Spain achieved the lowest results. Considering the instrumental risk, Spanish athletes registered the highest score and athletes from Russia the lowest values.

Conclusions: The S&IRQ can be used in international studies, as part of psychological training by sport psychologists, coaches, martial arts athletes, athletes from various sport disciplines, for their professional and personal development. The appendix includes Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Indian (Martahai and Hindi), Indonesian, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Macedonian, Moldavian, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Slovak and Spanish versions of the S&IRQ for martial arts athletes, together with the norms for both women and men.


Key words: risk perception, instrumental risk, extreme sports, combat sports, risk-taking, stimulating risk


Cite this article as:

AMA:

MAKAROWSKI R, PIOTROWSKI A, PREDOIU R et al. The English-speaking, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Romanian, Russian, Slovak, and Spanish adaptations of Makarowski’s Stimulating and Instrumental Risk Questionnaire for martial arts athletes. ARCH BUDO. 2021;17

APA:

MAKAROWSKI, R., PIOTROWSKI, A., PREDOIU, R., GÖRNER, K., PREDOIU, A., & MITRACHE, G. et al. (2021). The English-speaking, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Romanian, Russian, Slovak, and Spanish adaptations of Makarowski’s Stimulating and Instrumental Risk Questionnaire for martial arts athletes. ARCH BUDO, 17

Chicago:

MAKAROWSKI, RYSZARD, PIOTROWSKI ANDRZEJ, PREDOIU RADU, GÖRNER KAROL, PREDOIU ALEXANDRA, MITRACHE GEORGETA, and MALINAUSKAS ROMUALDAS et al. 2021. "The English-speaking, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Romanian, Russian, Slovak, and Spanish adaptations of Makarowski’s Stimulating and Instrumental Risk Questionnaire for martial arts athletes". ARCH BUDO 17

Harvard:

MAKAROWSKI, R., PIOTROWSKI, A., PREDOIU, R., GÖRNER, K., PREDOIU, A., MITRACHE, G., MALINAUSKAS, R., VICENTE-SALAR, N., VAZNE, Z., CHEREPOV, E., MIKLÓSI, M., KOVÁCS, K., PELIN, R.., BOE, O.., RAWAT, S., DESHPANDE, A., PLOPA, M., and PLOPA, W. (2021). The English-speaking, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Romanian, Russian, Slovak, and Spanish adaptations of Makarowski’s Stimulating and Instrumental Risk Questionnaire for martial arts athletes. ARCH BUDO, 17

MLA:

MAKAROWSKI, RYSZARD et al. "The English-speaking, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Romanian, Russian, Slovak, and Spanish adaptations of Makarowski’s Stimulating and Instrumental Risk Questionnaire for martial arts athletes." ARCH BUDO, vol. 17, 2021

Vancouver:

MAKAROWSKI R, PIOTROWSKI A, PREDOIU R et al. The English-speaking, Hungarian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Romanian, Russian, Slovak, and Spanish adaptations of Makarowski’s Stimulating and Instrumental Risk Questionnaire for martial arts athletes. ARCH BUDO 2021; 17