2022, Volume 18
Aggression in martial arts coaches and sports performance with the COVID-19 pandemic in the background – a dual processing analysis
RADU PREDOIU1, RYSZARD MAKAROWSKI2, KAROL GÖRNER3, ALEXANDRA PREDOIU4, OLE BOE5, MIHAI VALENTIN CIOLACU6, CARMEN GRIGOROIU7, ANDRZEJ PIOTROWSKI8
1Teachers\' Training Department, National University of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Bucharest, Romania
2Elblag University of Humanities and Economics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Elblag, Poland
3University of Presov, Faculty of Sports, Presov, Slovak Republic
4Sports and Motor Performance Department, National University of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Bucharest, Romania
5Department of Industrial Economics, Strategy and Political Science, USN School of Business, University of South-Eastern Norway, Drammen, Norway
6Department of Psychology, University of Bucharest, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Bucharest, Romania
7Physical Education and Sport - Kinetotherapy Department, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Medical Engineering, Bucharest, Romania
8Institute of Psychology, University of Gdańsk, Faculty of Social Sciences, Gdańsk, Poland
Author for correspondence: ALEXANDRA PREDOIU; Sports and Motor Performance Department, National University of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Bucharest, Romania; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background and Study Aims: Considering the dual processing model, human behaviour is guided by implicit and explicit processing. Implicit or automatic processing is essentially a spontaneous processing that occurs in the absence of conscious control. Coaches’ aggression can be, therefore, assessed both explicitly and implicitly. The aims of our research were knowledge about what is specific for successful martial arts coaches, considering aggression, and whether implicit aggression is a better predictor of sports performance than explicit aggression.
Materials and Methods: Sixty-two martial arts coaches took part in the study. For assessing explicit aggression, Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire and the Romanian adaptation of the Makarowski's Aggression Questionnaire were used. Implicit aggression was measured through a test derived from the Implicit Associations Test (IAT) for self-concept measurement, using the 20+40 trials subdivision and the classic 7-block version.
Results: Coaches with international and national performances associated aggression (measured IAT) with others at a stronger level (M = 0.46 ±0.010), compared to novice coaches, at the beginning of their career (M = 0.38, SD = 0.08). The average value for verbal aggression is significantly higher [t(60) = 2.12, p = 0.038] in successful coaches (which obtained a slightly above average score) compared to beginners/ young coaches (below average score). The effect size index (Hedge’s g = 0.51) shows a moderate difference between the results (for verbal aggression) of successful coaches and coaches at the beginning of their career. The binomial logistic regressions are statistically significant (p<0.05; "Omnibus test – Model"). The martial arts coaches, implicit aggression test is a better predictor of sports performance than explicit (verbal) aggression.
Conclusions: The study results are also increasing awareness regarding the level of manifestation of different factors of aggression in successful coaches, thus preventing violent and unethical behaviours, with negative impact on well-being of young athletes (mainly). The study offers valuable resources for novice martial arts coaches (and not only), sports psychologists and researchers eager to better understand the role of indirect measures in sports performance.
Key words: aggression, implicit aggression, explicit aggression, Makarowski\'s Aggression Questionnaire, Implicit Associations Test