2022, Volume 18
Changes in the body composition and on fitness levels judo practitioners’ in relation to pilot cadets’ – effects of two special programs
1Department of Air Transport Safety, Polish Air Force Academy, Dęblin, Poland
Author for correspondence: Zbigniew Wochyński; Department of Air Transport Safety, Polish Air Force Academy, Dęblin, Poland; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background and Study Aim: The period of special preparation in judo practitioners as well as in cadet pilots is one of the most important elements of fitness formation closing the entire training process. Changes in fitness and physiological indexes in athletes as well as their comparison during different preparation periods provide a diagnostic value in the assessment of body performance. The aim of the study is knowledge about projected changes in the level of physical fitness and changes in the components of the body composition under the influence of a special training process in judo practitioners in relation to the control group.
Material and Methods: Twenty-eight cadets (males) were tested in two groups: A (tested, n = 14) was made up of cadets, aged 18.92 ±0.69 years, who trained in a sports judo section and who were preparing for the Polish Military Championships; B (control, n = 14) was made up of pilot cadets, aged 19.14 ±1.16 years, who followed a special fitness preparation programme for flights. Fitness tests and determination of the components of body composition were made prior to the training process (examination I) and after the training process (examination I). In the research, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), muscle mass (MM), total body water (TBW), extracellular water content (ECW) and body cellular mass were determined (BCM) by means of the electrical bioimpedance method, using the AKERN 101 instrument.
Results: Groups A and B showed a statistically significant improvement in the total physical performance in examination II. In examination II, group A showed an upward trend in body composition components, whereas in group B a downward trend. A slight increase in FM was observed in both groups. In examination I, a significant difference (p<0.05) of higher values in FFM, TBW, BCM and MM was observed in group B rather than in A. In examination II, there were no significant differences between the groups in physical fitness tests and body composition components.
Conclusions: In groups A and B, the implemented special training process improved the total physical fitness, which was statistically significant in examination II compared to examination I. The special training process showed a statistically non-significant increase in the values of the body composition components FFM, TBW, BCM, ECW, MM and their decrease in the values of the pilot cadets.
Key words: fitness tests, acceleration –Gz (negative), acceleration +Gz (positive), physical fitness, Special Aviation Gymnastic Instruments, special preparation programme, training process