2022, Volume 18
The geography of Olympic combat sports – part two: boxing, fencing, modern pentathlon, wrestling
Justyna Bagińska1, Paweł Piepiora1, Zbigniew Piepiora2, Kazimierz Witkowski1
1Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, Wroclaw University of Health and Sport Sciences, Wrocław, Poland
2Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Geodesy, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, Poland
Author for correspondence: Paweł Piepiora; Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, Wroclaw University of Health and Sport Sciences, Wrocław, Poland; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background and Study Aim: This article continues the research line on the geography of Olympic combat sports. It is based on the perspective of their spatial differentiation and development. The aim of the paper was to reflect on the phenomenon of geography of Olympic combat sports, which have their roots in ancient times – boxing, fencing, modern pentathlon and wrestling.
Material and Methods: The data for the analysis were the boxing, fencing, modern pentathlon and wrestling results from the Olympic Games available via the IOC website (the method of secondary source analysis). In order to relativize the data, two recently developed indicators were applied: the Olympic Games medal winning frequency index (M) and the Olympic Games points winning frequency index (P); the results were presented in the form of maps and tables. A cartographic method – choropleth map and proportional symbol map, including the natural interval method to determine class intervals – was applied to illustrate the findings.
Results: The United States dominates boxing and wrestling in terms of the number and weight of medals won. With regard to fencing, France dominates in terms of the number of medals won, while Italy dominates in terms of the weight of medals won. And in modern pentathlon, Hungary dominates both in terms of the number and weight of medals won.
Conclusions: Boxing, fencing, modern pentathlon and wrestling are dominated by the countries in which the respective combat sports were most popular at the time of their introduction to the modern Olympic Games program.
Key words: choropleth map, combat sports, Olympic Games, geography of sport, proportional symbol map