2023, Volume 19
Emotional intelligence and aggression in kyokushin and shotokan karate athletes
Cezary Kuśnierz1, Aleksandra Rogowska2, Karol Görner3
1Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Opole University of Technology, Opole, Poland
2Institute of Psychology, University of Opole, Opole, Poland
3Department of Sports Education and Humanistics, Faculty of Sports, University of Prešov, Prešov, Slovak Republic
Author for correspondence: Cezary Kuśnierz; Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Opole University of Technology, Opole, Poland; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background and Study Aim: Although athletes' aggression (aggressiveness) and emotional intelligence (EI) were examined in previous studies, the associations between these variables were never investigated among karate athletes differing in their practice styles. This study aims is to verify two hypothesis: H1, that high EI is associated with low aggression (aggressiveness); H2, the level of aggression (aggressiveness) differentiates karate athletes of different styl aggressiveness es and these differences also apply to physically active and inactive people (also in relation to karate athletes).
Material and Methods: The cross-sectional study was performed in Poland using self-reported questionnaires to measure aggressiveness (the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire; BPAQ) and emotional intelligence (the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire – short form; TEIQue-SF). The research sample included 246 men aged 16-60 (M = 24.72, SD = 8.51) in four groups: KK karate kyokushin (n = 42), KS karate shotokan (n = 39), PA physically active people (n = 93), and PI (n = 72). A one-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and General Linear Model of regression were used to verify hypotheses.
Results: Significant differences were found between KK, KS, PA, and PI samples in emotional intelligence and almost all aggression scales, including total aggression score, physical aggression, anger, and hostility (excluding verbal aggression). The KK group showed the lowest aggression levels and the highest EI compared to other groups. Aggression scales (excluding verbal aggression) correlated negatively with EI. Low aggression is a significant predictor of EI, but the moderating effect of the sample on the relationship between aggression as a predictor and EI as explained variable was not found in this study.
Conclusions: This study confirmed the beneficial effect of physical activity and karate training on improving emotional intelligence and reducing aggression. Karate training, especially in kyokushin style, is recommended for people with "aggression problems" and to increase EI and well-being.
Key words: aggressiveness, combat sports, martial arts, physical activity