2023, Volume 19

Body balance disturbation tolerance skills athletes practicing combat sports and other forms of hand-to-hand combat



Artur Litwiniuk1, Robert Bąk2, Karolina Przednowek2, Adam Podolski3

1Faculty of Physical Education and Health, Biala Podlaska, Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
2Institute of Physical Culture Studies, College of Medical Sciences, University of Rzeszow, Rzeszow, Poland
3Institute of Pedagogy, College of Social Sciences, University of Rzeszow, Rzeszow, Poland


Author for correspondence: Robert Bąk; Institute of Physical Culture Studies, College of Medical Sciences, University of Rzeszow, Rzeszow, Poland; email: rbak@ur.edu.pl



Abstract

Background and Study Aim: The one of the most important elements of effectiveness in combat sports is body balance disturbation tolerance skills (BBDTS). When competing in many combat sports, throwing the opponent off balance is the basic criterion for demonstrating an advantage or even victory before the end of the regular fight time. Meanwhile, the dominant paradigm is to measure two distinct phenomena (dynamic balance and static balance) within this coordination capacity. The 'Rotational Test' (‘RT’) recommended for measuring the BBDTS phenomenon (in the 'non-apparatus' and 'quasi-apparatus' versions) is a compilation of dynamic and static components of the complex phenomenon of human body balance. A high level of BBDTS outside sports is an important factor in increasing human motor safety in many hazardous situations. The purpose of this review is knowledge about the BBDTS level of athletes practicing various combat sports and other forms of hand-to-hand combat.

Material and Methods: The search for publications was performed in the largest scientific publication databases: Web of Science, Google Scholar. The query included the following terms: ‘body balance’, ‘combat sport’, ‘hand-to-hand combat’, ‘martial arts’, using the "and" operator. The results were divided according to: criterion for ‘non-apparatus’ and ‘quasi-apparatus; version of ‘RT’. In both versions of ‘RT’, the main evaluation criterion is the result in points indicating the number of errors made. ‘RT’ consists of six tasks (consecutive jumps with body rotation of 360° alternately to the right and to the left). The overall result (motoric aspect) is the sum of the six tasks and includes 0 to 18 stipulated points. Criteria of an individual level of BBDTS are as follows: very high (0-1), high (2-3), average (4-9), low (10-12), very low (13-15), insufficient (16-18). The ‘quasi-apparatus’ version takes into account execution time  ‘RT’ (this is an additional qualitative criterion).

Results: Publications whose authors used the quasi apparatus version ‘RT’ predominate (n = 4). Based on the criterion of errors made (sum of ‘RT, points), judo and kick boxing athletes make the least mistakes. An additional qualitative criterion, i.e. the time of 'RT' execution, turned out to be useful information differentiating the compared people in circumstances when the 'RT' results expressed in points after a period of specific homogeneous stimuli (learning new motor activities, identical exercise time, etc.) were identical. The quality of the BBDTS phenomenon is strongly determined by the type of combat sports or martial arts practiced.

Conclusions: There is empirically justified evidence that the BBDTS phenomenon is strongly stimulated by the practice of combat sports in particular, the essence of which is the intense unbalancing of the opponent during tournament and training fights. Therefore, this category of combat sports and some forms of hand-to-hand combat based on such motoric patterns deserve to be recommended together with other aspects of broadly understood motor safety in relation to strengthening health and survival. Frequent falling meets the criteria for the prevention of bodily injury during unintentional falls in other motor activities. Throwing the aggressor off balance and effectively restraining his body in a horizontal posture is a more reliable means of self-defence than a strike that carries the risk of exceeding these limits. These examples do not raise any doubts about judo, wrestling, aikido, etc. with the possibility of positively strengthening all dimensions of health and survival, not only for a short period of sports career.


Key words: complementary approach, INNOAGON, motor safety, Rotational Test


Cite this article as:

AMA:

Litwiniuk A, Bąk R, Przednowek K et al. Body balance disturbation tolerance skills athletes practicing combat sports and other forms of hand-to-hand combat. ARCH BUDO. 2023;19

APA:

Litwiniuk, A., Bąk, R., Przednowek, K., & Podolski, A. (2023). Body balance disturbation tolerance skills athletes practicing combat sports and other forms of hand-to-hand combat. ARCH BUDO, 19

Chicago:

Litwiniuk, Artur, Bąk Robert, Przednowek Karolina, Podolski Adam. 2023. "Body balance disturbation tolerance skills athletes practicing combat sports and other forms of hand-to-hand combat". ARCH BUDO 19

Harvard:

Litwiniuk, A., Bąk, R., Przednowek, K., and Podolski, A. (2023). Body balance disturbation tolerance skills athletes practicing combat sports and other forms of hand-to-hand combat. ARCH BUDO, 19

MLA:

Litwiniuk, Artur et al. "Body balance disturbation tolerance skills athletes practicing combat sports and other forms of hand-to-hand combat." ARCH BUDO, vol. 19, 2023

Vancouver:

Litwiniuk A, Bąk R, Przednowek K et al. Body balance disturbation tolerance skills athletes practicing combat sports and other forms of hand-to-hand combat. ARCH BUDO 2023; 19